Ternate Language September 2, 2008Posted by bobato in Ternate.
Knew the Ternate Language
The HISTORY & PERKEMBANGAN
Ternate was one of the historic areas in the east Indonesian Archipelago region that since beforehand often was visited by various ethnic groups in the world to trade in spices. Communication that was carried out by the Ternate inhabitants in the interaction of trade relationship with the ethnic group/the other nation in this place used the Melayu Language as the escort’s language (the Lingua Franca). The Melayu language was the only social language between various areas in the Indonesian Archipelago island at that time. (C. Apituley Cs, Departemen of Education & Culture, 1983).
Resulting from the existence of the interaction with other languages from outside the North Moluccas, then automatically these languages influenced the development of the Ternate language, especially from the Malay language. Plenty of words from the Malay language that entered the Ternate language treasury, afterwards it was considered as the Ternate language. In this area the Malay language in the past only was used by people who have moved to the city and the certain circle apart from the original language.
In the period pra–Islam, the Ternate language was still being the spoken language, because the Ternate language personally did not have the script (the letter). Together with the development of the Islam religion in this territory, then Arabic terms began to enter the Ternate language treasury. The script Arab–Melayulah began to be used to write the Ternate language (Arabian Barren). Moreover now still had a small number of Ternate communities (the very old person) still used him.
The example of the old manuscript (the sultanate Document)
Beforehand each writing of the royal document always used the Arabian article spoke Ternate (All sultanate documents in the Ternate history that was found used the Arabian script). At this time the Arabian script has rarely been used in each writing of the document. The Latin script was afterwards used, in fact more dominant his use as is now the case.
Likewise the existence of the influence of several local languages, like the Javanese Language also was seen in the Ternate language treasury, this as resulting from from the existence of friendship relations and the trade that for centuries were established.
The example of the old manuscript (the sultanate Document)
One of the examples of the influence of the Javanese language, for example words “Jara” (the horse), beforehand this kind animal was not found in Ternate, the horse was at that time brought in by the government of VOC/Dutch East Indies from the Javanese island, so as his naming followed this animal origin was brought in.
The influence from the Bugis Language (South Sulawesi) and the Bare’e Language (Central Sulawesi) also was seen in the Ternate language. That was close his relations with the friendship that was established between Ternate with the Sulawesi territory that beforehand became part of the Ternate sultanate territory.
The presence of the Portugis Language and Spanish in Ternate along with the arrival of the two European nations in Ternate since the beginning the 16th age that apparently took part in enriching the Ternate treasury of the language treasury. Words from the Portugis language that still was used to at this time, for example; kadera (the seat), bandera (the flag), flat (the spoon), alfiris (the standard bearer), stampa (the crown), the name of the Kastela village etc..
Dutch was the foreign language that for a long time was known in Ternate, but only words or the term that be related to paut with the government’s affair that entered the Ternate language treasury, this was caused because of the political attitude of VOC/Dutch East Indies that in his association only restricted itself to the certain circle. This attitude caused Dutch only was used in the very limited environment, that is the environment of the officials VOC/Dutch East Indies both original Dutch and the official from indigenous people (Walanda kotu).
In Ternate, Dutch was not made the social language in the everyday community at the time. Dutch was also used in the environment and the noble of the elite’s circle as well as was often used also in the palace environment.
Likewise with the presence of the English nation in Ternate. Although his authority only was short, but English also took part in giving the contribution said-he said in the Ternate language.
Chinese that for centuries became the language ekslusif in the social circle of the Chinese trader in Ternate was not directly influential in the colloquial language because only was used in the circle personally. However still had words and several terms from Chinese that still was used by the Ternate person to at this time was; the term “Ko” (Om), “Ci” (Tante), “sentiong” for the location of the cemetery as well as bebera the other term.
In the period pedudukan Japan (Dai Nippon) for three half of the year had the power, Japanese in a manner the incentive was spread all through the social stratum by the Japanese troops, but this language in the Ternate social circle was unpopular and finally vanished along with the Japanese ending of the occupation period in the homeland.
Although the Ternate language often was influenced by Arabic, Java, Bugis, Bare’e and European languages for their occupation period in Ternate, good that Portugis, Spain, the Netherlands, England as well as the Asian language other, like Chinese and Japan, but as a language said that was independent, the Ternate language was still continuing to have aspects to-language-an him was special.
The LANGUAGE GROUP in Ternate & HALMAHERA
Was based on the report produced by the research in the North Moluccas that were done by the Department of Education and Jakarta Culture during 1983, said that the Ternate language was the parent language from various available regional languages in the North Moluccas. (C. Apituley Cs, Departemen of Education & Culture, 1983)
The spreading of the Ternate language covered the very wide territory, even his influence until arriving in the Mindanao island, the torch island and Sabah in Kalimantan North, along the Sulawesi coast Utara–Tengah–Tenggara, the Banggai island, the Stake island, the Waigeo island, the west and north coast the Halmahera island as well as the Morotai island and surrounding area.
The experts linguistic, believe that the Ternate language including in the group of the Polynesian language. But had some researchers of regional languages believed that the Ternate language could be also classed in the group of the Austronesia language. The second opinion had the reason that often was gotten by the similarity in the aspect of grammar (pronouncitation and vocabulary). In the North Moluccas still was gotten by many speeches on the area and till at this time still continue to eksis and was used as the local language in his region was their respective.
Apart from classification of the group of this language, then was based on his spreading territory, the Ternate language including in the language group Ternate–Halmahera. Meaning that a group with various regional languages of surrounding area that covered the Ternate language, the Tidore language with other languages that were received in Halmahera west and north.
The Ternate language, the Tidore language and other languages that were received in Halmahera west and north this was mentioned with “Bahasa Kie se Gam”. As for regional languages that including into this group, was:
• the Language of Ternate
• the Language of Tidore
• the Language of Ibu
• the Language of Waiyoli
• the Language of Tubaru
• the Language of Madole
• the Language of Tobelo
• the Language of Loloda
• the Language of Galela
• the Tololiku Language, dan
• the Isam Language
In these languages was gotten by plenty of equalities in the vocabulary (vocabulary). His difference was very thin, this was especially caused by the variation, the form of the pressure pengucapan and the accent/the dialect that was used to each one the place.
Gradually the development of the Ternate language in rhythm with the development of the authority of the Ternate sultanate, the Ternate language continued to grow and develop until finding his form personally, in fact was made the escort’s language (the Lingua Franca) in the Ternate region and Halmahera west and north, afterwards developing wider arrived in territories that was outside the North Moluccan region.
For example the similarity perbendaharan words and the difference in the variation, the form of the pressure pengucapan and the accent/the dialect that was used between languages in the language group Ternate–Halmahera, was :
Free from the problem of the problem whether the Ternate language including the group of the Polynesian language or the group of the Austronesia language but the fact is that for centuries till at this time the Ternate language was still continuing to live and eksis as the language said that aged hundreds of years. In the structure of the Ternate language was gotten by several to-special-an, namely the existence of “Kelamin Kata” and “Perasaan Kata” like in the Javanese language, that is: the language Javanese Ngoko (the rough language/everyday) and the language Javanese Kromo (the refined language/polite).
For example, to mention words “aku” in everyday conversation with the person who was equal, we were enough to use words “ngori”. But when we spoke with the older person or it was considered higher his level, then we must say my words by using words “fangare”, as the sign humiliated himself.
If we spoke with the person who it was considered was equal, then we really mentioned words “engkau” by using words “ngana”, but if this interlocutor was more old or higher his level with us, then we mentioned him by using words “Jou” or “Jou-ngon”, as the sign peghormatan.
At this time, one of the policies from the government of the Ternate city that put “Pelajaran Bahasa Ternate” in the school curriculum and began to be taught to each Primary School in the Ternate municipality territory appropriate disyukuri. The step like this for a long time has been carried out in the other area, for example in the Central Javan province and the province of East Java was taught by the subject of the Javanese Language as well as in the West Javanese province and the province of Banten was given by the subject of the Sundanese Language.
The insignificance of the teaching material and the reference penunjang from the government program of this Ternate City took part in motivating the writer to compile the book of “PENGANTAR BAHASA TERNATE” that was temporary this still in the process was completed. Must be stressed that the understanding of the Ternate language was distinguished by above two understandings, by the writer here to the readers, that is, First; the Ternate Dialect and the two; the Ternate language personally.
The understanding of the first understanding contained the meaning that “dialek Ternate” (the Ternate language the market), was the style of speaking and the voice pressure as well as the intonation that often were used by the community in Ternate although by using Indonesian/withered that sometimes was mixt with several original Ternate language words including several terms that only were in Ternate, for example; Ngana (=Ka you), we (=Saya/single), Kitorang (=kita the person/ordinary), Tarada (=Tidak was available).
The person’s Ternate language in the understanding of this first understanding often shortened a word, for example words “Pergi”, often was shortened to “Pigi”, in fact more was shortened still to “Pi”, the other example for example “ikut” to “iko”.
The example said for example; “Ngana mo pi iko our pa the train tarada? (=Ka you wanted to go with me went or not? ). In the understanding of this first understanding, areas that received the influence from the Ternate dialect like use as an example above was; almost all the area in the Moluccas the northern part, Manado (North Sulawesi), Papua Barat, in fact arrived at NTT.
In the understanding of the second understanding; that is the Language of Asli Ternate personally, that consisted of the vocabulary that only was in the Ternate language personally. His dialect far was not different from the Language Ternate Pasar. That distinguished was the intonation that was used, for example the community’s intonation Ternate Selatan rather be different from that in Ternate Utara, whereas the speaker that was in the Hiri island rather different also. Demiian also with the Ternate language speaker in the other crack in the North Moluccas.
The SPEAKER the TERNATE LANGUAGE
Was based on the analysis geogafis, the user of the Ternate language the most was gotten in the Ternate island, the Hiri island and partly some Halmahera island coasts that his village came directly face to face with the Ternate island.
1. The speaker was active in the Ternate Island They were all the original inhabitant in the Ternate island, that is:
• Kp. Makassar and surrounding area (some)
• Soa Sio and surrounding area (some)
• Salero (some)
• Kasturian (some)
• Toboleu (some)
• Ake Bo’oca (some)
• Sabia (some)
• Gam Cim
• Court By Me
• Foramadiahi and surrounding area of
• Ubo-ubo (some)
• Skep (some)
• Marikurubu (some)
• Torano (some)
• Moya and surrounding area (some)
• the Bandera Book (some)
2. The speaker was active outside the Ternate Island They were the inhabitants in the Hiri island subdistrict and in the area of the Halmahera regency coast baratyang the position of his village came directly face to face with the Ternate island (from the south in the Dodinga border to the north to in Dented that shared a border with Loloda). These villages were:
• Durari Isa
• Mayau (some Sangir languages)
• Tifure (some Sangir languages)
• the Craving of
• Gufasa (some languages withered the Market)
• Street Just
• Gamlamo Jailolo
• Mutui (some in the coast)
• Sidangoli Gam
• Sidangoli Dehe
• Bobaneigo (some Gorap languages)
• Akelamo Kao
• Ake Sahu
• the Widower
• Tongute Ternate
• Gamlamo Ibu
• Gamkonora (some mother tongues)
• Talaga (some mother tongues)
• Tahafo, dan
The POSITION AND the FUNCTION of the TERNATE LANGUAGE
- Kedudukan In relations with the position of Indonesian, then the Ternate Language as the language said oral that was met in the Republic of Indonesia territory of the Country’s law was located as the regional language. This position was based on the reality that the regional language was one of the elements of national culture that was protected by the country, in accordance with the explanation sound of the Article 36, the XV Chapter, Undang-undang Dasar 1945.
- Fungsi In his position as the regional language, then the Ternate Language functioned as:
1) the Symbol of pride daerah
2) the Symbol of the identity daerah
3) One of the elements budaya
4) the Communications Equipment between the individual in the family & in the community. (oral communication)
5) the Media the moral message in the form of Lisan Literature, Pantun Nasihat and Dolabololo.
By : Busranto Abdullatif Doa, S.Pd
In translated By : Bobato