History of the Ternate September 2, 2008Posted by bobato in Ternate.
Investigated the tracks origin of the History of the Ternate Person
In the Pleistochen time, the Ternate island mainland was still being one mainland with the islands like; Morotai, Halmahera, Hiri, Maitara, Tidore, Mare, Moti, Makian, Kayoa, Bacan et cetera that was located in rankaian the North Moluccan zone volcano. The row of these islands was all along the West Coast the Halmahera island in the North Moluccan province. The change in nature that happened for hundreds of thousands of years and the shift in the earth’s crust in a manner the evolution formed the small islands all along “Jazirah the Mulku“ Mountain lever, (the Term that often was utilised by Buya Hamka). Halmahera was to be the Island of the Mother from in this region, that became the eldest plain, apart from the Ceram island in Moluccan Tengah. (the source; B. Soelarto, Sekelumit Monografi Daerah Ternate, Proyek Pengembangan of the Kebudayaan Media, the Department of Education and Culture, Jakarta
Seen from the geological corner, like touch on above, the Ternate island was one of the rows of the island that had the volcano, from the line line: ”strato vulkano active at south pacific” that melintang in the East Asian region to South-East Asia, from the north to the south. Some that still were active in the North Moluccan island were the mountain “Gamalama” in the Ternate island with the height 1.730 m.. (the Portugis nation mentioned with; Nostra Se- Nora del Rozario). The eruption had from the eruption of the Gamalama volcano that was greatest happened during 1608, 1635, 1653, 1840 and 1862. The greatest eruption that was recorded happened to the middle of the 18th age, to be precise on March 10 1737 that coincided with 22 of Dzulkaidah 1149.H that resulted in the mudflow current from the peak until reaching sea that is known now with “Batu Angus”. (the source; F.S.A. de Clerq, Bijdragen tot de Kennis der Residentie van Ternate, Leiden, 1890).
n a period of not all that 400 years more (1538 – 1962) 1164 eruption times of the larva happened. The eruption that resulted in the panic and and the evacuation of the Ternate community modern was the first time since 1962, that is on September 4 1980 that was experienced personally by the writer that at that point still as the class student 5 in one of the primary schools in the Ternate island.
In an astronomical manner, the Ternate island was located to 127.17 lay alongside Timur – 127.23 lay alongside Timur and 0.44 lay alongside Timur – 0.51 lay alongside Timur. Topographically Pulau Ternate have the shape of round the cone (strato volcano) that was wide diagonal the island from the north to the south, along 13 km and from the west to the east along 11 km, in a long manner the island circle was 55 km, that consisted of the plain and the slope. The topographic characteristics a big part his plain was the mountainous territory and the hilly area, consisted of the volcanic island and the atoll with the condition for the land kind: • Rogusal: the Ternate island, the Hiri island and the island of Moti • Rensikal: the Mayau island, the Tifure island, the Makka island, the Mano island and the Gurida island
Juridically, was based on regulations No.11 in 1999, on April 27 1999 the status of the Ternate City from the Administrative City (the Co- Tip) was increased and became the municipality. Widely all the Ternate municipality territory was 5,681.30 Km2, consist of
The waters territory: 5,457.55 Km2
The mainland Territory: 133.74 Km2, that included 8 islands, that is:
• the Ternate Island: 92.12 of Km2
• the Hiri Island: 7.31 of Km2
• the Moti Island: 17.72 of Km2
• the Mayau Island: 8.5 of Km2
• the Tifure Island: 7 of Km2
• the Makka Island: 0.5 Km2, not berpenghuni
• the Mano Island: 0.05 Km2, not berpenghuni
• the Gurida Island: 0.55 Km2, not berpenghuni
The Clearance pulau
• Ternate – Hiri: 1,5 mile laut
• Ternate – Moti: 11 mile laut
• Ternate – Mayau: 90 mile laut
• Ternate – Tifure: 106 mile laut
• Ternate – Makka: 1,6 mile laut
• Ternate – Mano: 1,6 mile laut
• Ternate – Gurida: 106,1 mile laut
The islands in the Ternate municipality territory were located in the scope of the region the West Coast Halmahera, went through the Philippino island, Sangihe Talaud and Minahasa that were covered the Sulawsi arch the northern part. The Ternate municipality shared a border with: Next north with the Pacific ocean and waters of Filipina • Next south and west with Sea of Maluku • Next east with the West Coast Halmahera
Economically, Kedudukan of the Ternate city was as the centre of the government and the trade centre that were very strategic and very important in this region. In the Ternate City was gotten the ocean Port of “Ahmad Yani” and the Airport “Babullah”. The Ternate city personally was located in the east coast the Ternate island appeared the Halmahera island this position was very potential. The position like this caused the Ternate city to have the role that was very important in trade economics in the Halmahera passage.
Moreover, the location of the Ternate island was close to the Manado city the capital of the North Sulawesi province. The strategic position that was faced with the Dodinga region, an intersection in the Halmahera island that caused this city to develop in the row of the trade in the North Moluccan area
As was explained above, there was the opinion that said that in the time pleistochen, after the Morotai plain, Ternate, Tidore, Makian, Bacan, Kayoa et cetera was freed with the Halmahera plain and formed the small islands, as the existence now, then the migration of the inhabitants in the time that originally resided in the countryside plain to the coastal region happened also. That was done to avoid the natural disaster that was resulted in by the movement of the volcano and the shift kerak the earth’s crust that took place in a manner the evolution.
This opinion was based by the argumentation of cultural anthropology, that is that between the inhabitants of the countryside and the community in the islands, had the customs and traditions that almost same. The other estimate was that the inhabitants of the community’s indigenous people in Halmahera and the North Moluccas generally still one group with the nation of Proto Melayu and Netro Melayu that until currently still could be investigated the tracks of the origin he proposed. But that was clear, Ternate from all along Halmahera, that stretched from the north as far as south was not in the line of the migration trip of the community purbakala in the Indonesian Archipelago that came through, Chinese Selatan (Tonkin), went through Phinipina went straight to North Sulawesi.
Really Pra- Islam
The Ternate history in the period preIslam still could not be explained in a detailed manner, except in the aspect of the customs and traditions and the belief that up to now still experience fully by a community’s Ternate part, that could be made the convincing guidance by us that during the period of preIslam, Ternate had the history personally. The Ternate legacy in the time preIslam was not found in the form of the article and artevak
Like that has been explained to articles beforehand that not yet the Islam religion entered, in Ternate was gotten by the community’s 4 groups, that is;
1. Tubo, (that lived in the peak region/the next slope north pTernate)
2. Tobona, (that lived in the next striped region south in Foramadiyahi).
3. Tabanga, (that landed the region of the northern part coast) dan
4. Toboleu. (that occupied the east region of the coastal coast in Ternate
The Ternate community that since beforehand since from the King first Kolano Cico alias Famous Malamo (1257) to the Sultan who was 48th now Sri Sultan Mudaffar Shah-Ii, experienced the long trip that was the continuation link of a community that definitely was eroded and polished by the time that was passed through by him till at this time Ternate became the centre of the government of the North Moluccan province.
The KESULTANAN ROLE
Each discussion concerning the history of the North Moluccan area “the history of Moluccas” generally revolves about the history of the sultanate that had had the power in this area. The history recorded, that for a long time was available, four sultanates that were known with “Molo I Kiye Raha” that consist of; ”Kiye Bessi, Tuanane, Duko, se Gapi”. Kiye Bessi afterwards shifted to Kasiruta in Bacan, Tuanane afterwards shifted to Halmahera in Jailolo, Duko was Tidore and Gapi was Ternate. The four kingdoms were afterwards known with; the Ternate Sultanate, Kesultanan Tidore, Kesultanan Jailolo and the Bacan Sultanate. (the place according to Naidah that was written by P. van der Crab, “Geschiedenis van Ternate, in Ternataanschen en Maleischen text beschreven door den Ternataan Naidah”, Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal, Land en Volkenkunde, The Hague, 1878).
Other foreign sources also named the existence of the four sultanates, Portugis for example to give the same place, that was the guidance that, the source material of the data and information was often received from the Ternate side, whichever Portuguese the first time established relations.
Of course sources will from outside Ternate give the other place also. For example for example, Francoise Valentijn (“Oud en Neew Oost Indien” S. Keijzer, Amsterdam, 1862), gave the place of the Jailolo sultanate in the place perrtama, afterwards changed to the Ternate side, Tidore and Bacan.
Whereas according to chronic the Bacan sultanate, clear that the Bacan sultanate occupied the first place berdasdarkan the claim that King Bacan first was Putra eldest from Jaffar Saddik, with his place; Bacan, Jailolo, Tidore and Ternate. Although the place him, that more most important was that all these sources stated the same name.
The influence size of the Globalisation as well as the insignificance of materials and the article about the history of the North Moluccan area, resulted in the now younger generation, was apathetic towards conservation of the values of the history and his regional culture personally. And more was regretted still was increasingly sharp him primordial egoism to-ethnic group-an between respectively the available ethnic group in the North Moluccas in the arena in the practical political field the local level, gave the effect of the negative against conservation the value, the tradition and the tradition of the history from respectively the group etnik
The KEAGAMAAN AGENCY
All the agencies and the position that was untangled the writer in discussions above was mentioned with “Bobato Dunia“. Bobato the world was all the agencies and the position that were connected with the affair to-world-wian, that had a politics nature, economics, social-culture and defence and security et cetera. Whereas the agency or the position that arranged the problem of piety was mentioned with “Bobato Akhirat“. From the aspect of spiritual and the religious affair was handled by an agency that was mentioned with Jou Lebe (the Syari’ah Body). This agency was headed by a person who held the office of Kadhi. His member consisted of the priests, Khatib and the executive’s staffs. The officials in the religious field consist of:
1. Kadhi or Calm that is the tallest official in the religious affair (the Great Priest), supervised 4 Big priests the Sultanate, (was increased by the Javanese Priest) that consist of:
• the Priest Jiko
• the Javanese Priest
• the Priest Sangaji
• the Priest Moti
• the Priest Bangsa
2. The other position was the preachers that is the official pelaksanan preaching and siar Islam was supervised by the Priest, was gotten by 6 positions of the preacher in the structure of the sultanate. Each preacher supervised several people Modim (Muazzim). The six preachers, consist of:
• the Preacher Jiko
• Khatib Jawa
• the Preacher Sangaji
• the Preacher Moti
• the nation Preacher
• the clerk’s Preacher
From the priests and the preacher, as well as JOGURU (Kiyai in the Javanese language) this siar and Islam religious preaching was upheld all through the North Moluccan peninsula coast, so as at this time almost all the coasts of the islands in the North Moluccan region, North Sulawesi, Pantai Timur the Sulawesi island, Ceram Barat, Kailolo, Hingga the head of Papua island birds (Fak-Fak etc.) was touched by the belief and the Islam religious teaching.
The Ternate community did not know the system “Pesantren” as in the case of in Java. The traditional teaching method with the Pesantren System began to be applied in Ternate the first time around early the 1980 ‘s that is with the first islamic school establishment in Tidore.
Formal education piety the first time stood in Ternate during the 1930 ‘s with the Madrasah Islamiyah School establishment in Ternate. The Raudatul Adab school that was new that was taken care of by an educator who came from the Ambon island that was still bloody Arabian that is: the Deceased Syech Bachmid. Two schools that were established this was their respective a window with the PRIMARY SCHOOL and SMP. Kemudian stood also the Pendidikan Muhammadiyah Garden that was pioneered by Bongso Hi Bahdar.
The KEPEMIMPINAN STRUCTURE
Each one of the community’s groups in the time preIslam in Ternate lived in a residence, that they mentioned with the Gam term (the Village), his resident consisted of several families/relatives who in the regional term were mentioned with the Soa term (the Clan) that was led by a person of Fanyira, the abbreviation from words ‘Ngofa Ma-nyira’. (read the related article; Sosial Stratification of the Adat Community in Ternate).
Further respectively the Soa head was led by a person of Momole (the Village Head) that was titled; Kimelaha, Fanyira and Sangadji. Beside the term for a Soa head for each one of Soa, said momole was taken from words “Tomole“ that had the meaning; the Supernatural Powers or the Intensity, namely the person who became the leader because of having the surplus and the supernatural powers in various matters.
The community’s group at that time still was undertaking the primitive belief, and sometimes often the conflict happened and was hostile toward each other in the matter contested hegemony. Therefore then, in Ternate in the time preIslam was received by 4 people Momole. A person of Momole was appointed was based on available charisma to him. After the entry of the Islam religion, then the government’s Momole system changed. Fourthly this Momole, gathered and was led by a person of Kolano. In the beginning period of this system, the structure of leadership was still being very simple.
Along with entered and the Islam religious expansion in Ternate, then developed also the government’s Kolano system, like also in Tidore, Bacan and Jailolo. To-four Kolano this afterwards formed the confederation of the alliance between four kingdoms in Taunane the Moti Island (Moti Verbond), that afterwards was known and the association term “Molo I Kie Raha”. Ternate was at that time led by Kolano the 7, that had a name Kolano Sida Arif-Ma-Lamo.
Sida Arif Ma-Lamo was pointed out as “Kolano Ma-Dopolo” that the leader of this alliance. Crowned as Kolano Ternate the year 1322 and governed for 9 years (1322-1331). In this system, the structure of his leadership was more completed. (F.S.A. de Clerq).
In his development was further, since 1486, when the Kolano coronation of the 19, Zainal Abidin, that the first time used the “SULTAN” degree that governed from 1486 – 1500, was the transition period from the Kolano form to the form of the Sultanate. He was given by the degree; Paduka Sri Sultan Zainal Abidin.
In the structure of sultanate leadership, was formed by traditional agencies. The implementation of his task, the Sultan was helped by the bodies and the official like:
1. The NGARUHA COMMISSION, (his function was compared with the Pertimbangan Agung Council).
2. BOBATO Ma-DOPOLO, that is a Pembantu Council the Sultan, his member consisted:
a. Jogugu, as the representative the Sultan doubled as the Bobato head. Jogugu was the abbreviation from ‘Jou Kolano Ma-gugu’ that is the representative the Sultan the Government’s field, that have the power and was responsible for on all the policy of the highest sultanate being supervised by the Sultan, who was held by the Senior noble in relatives’s circle of Sultan’s closest family. (was compared with the Prime Minister).
b. Kapita Lao, that was responsible in the problem that had links with warfare, that was held by the Senior noble in relatives’s circle the Sultan. (was compared with the Commander of the Laut Fleet).
c. The Soa Sio law, was a responsible official and handled matters that were connected with the affair in the country. (was compared with the Home Minister).
d. The Sangadji law, was a responsible official and handled foreign problems including the area yielded-would. (was compared with the Foreign Affairs Minister).
e. It was deaf that Lamo, as the sultanate clerk, (was compared with the Minister
3. BOBATO NYAGI MOI SE- TUFKANGE, that is the Council 18 that his member consisted of eighteen people. They consist of:
a. Came from Soa-Sio totalling 9 people, that is:
1) the Official was high-ranking Kimelaha, totalling 5 people.
2) the Official was high-ranking Fanyira, totalling 4 people.
b.Came from the high-ranking Official Sangaji, totalling 9 people, who were the representative of the envoy from the foreign territory.
In the structure of traditional leadership in the Ternate sultanate, was gotten by a kind of Rakyat Council, that was mentioned with GAM RAHA, that his representative consisted of the official of delegation of the four territories that consist of:
1. SOA-SIO, (the community’s Community that consisted of 9 Soa groups/the district that was in in the central territory of the Sultanate).
2. SANGADJI, (the Community of several districts in the foreign country/the territory conquered).
3. HEKU, (the community’s Ternate Community that his territory beginning with Ake Santosa (now the Salero District) to the north as far as the Hiri island including Halmahera the face).
4. Cim, (the community’s Community from Ake Santosa to salatan until achieving the Kalumata village limit).
Gam Raha had a function of ratifying the prospective sultan who according to the tradition was appointed from the son’s son of the sultan, (not Putra just eldest but could brother-man him). Although being appointed by the tradition, Sultan’s candidate must be ratified by Gam Raha. The candidate was put forward by the side of Soa-Sio and Sangaji, furthermore if this candidate was refused by the Heku side and Cim, then must be replaced. This system was the uniqueness and cirri typical “Demokrasi” in the style of Ternate, where the government’s system was to have the shape of the Monarchy but the authority heir was done through the election/the appointment from “Gam Raha” was based on the certain criterion. Unlike usually each kingdom, the eldest son from the King and the Queen absolute must become the throne heir.
The other important official who in territory leadership was a person of Salahakan. This official was to be Sultan’s delegation in areas of far autonomy. In the Ternate history, had been appointed by Salahakan in Consider Taboo (Sangir Talaud), Banggai (Sulawesi), the Taliabu Stake. Apart from Salahakan was known also the Envoy the Sultan who was sent to the border to handle the matter of the security. He also was assigned as the co-ordinator sangaji in the area.
Known had had three envoys who had been appointed in the Ternate sultanate, that is; the Envoy Kayoa that shared a border with the Bacan sultanate, of Utusan Galela to pacify the border with the Mindanao-Sulu sultanate, Utusan Dodinga to supervise the border of the land territory with the Tidore sultanate in the Halmahera island mainland.
The PEMERINTAHAN HISTORY
In the history of leadership/the government in Ternate, apart from was led by Kolano/Sultan totalling 48 Ternate Kings, the Ternate community once diperintah by the official of the foreign ruler who was located in Ternate, was recorded by as many as 20 officials Governor Portugis (1512-1574), 7 officials as delegation’s English Resident in Ternate (1797-1815), 53 officials Governor VOC for the Moluccan territory that was located in Ternate, and more than 28 officials of the Resident the Government of the Dutch Kingdom that also was located in Ternate. (the Source; F.S.A. de Clerq).
The long trip the history of the Ternate community that up to now is 758 years old through the dynamics in this way of the number of processes of the assimilation of the culture and the authority interference from outside especially the European nation apart from the Sultans him result in kebudayan the Ternate community had his typical characteristics was special.
The arrival of Europeans to various places in this hemisphere brings three missions especially, that is; “Gold”, “Gospel” and “Glory”. The most real inheritance till at this time was to the certain region in the North Moluccas still was gotten by the adherent of the Christian religion as Gospel existence proof that was sounded the European nation at that time, whereas the Islam presence in this area also as resulting from the existence of relations with the traders from the Arabian nation and Persia and from Gujarat.
The dynamics that are experienced by the Ternate community through to the generation now through the long process. The predecessors in this area despised the foundation, both that was related to the religious conviction, and the moral foundations and ethics as well as the behaviour that were reflected in the customs and traditions, the tradition and the culture that is implied in the institution and the social structure in the Ternate community. As the generation at this time, appropriately if having the interest and the wish in the study field of the history, because of more benefits that were received than did not know him completely.
By : Busranto Abdullatif Doa, S.Pd
In translated By : Bobato